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Heat and Thermodynamics

Topic Review on "Title":

Study of heat changes.

Temperature (T):
Proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles.  The higher the temperature the faster the molecules move.

Linear Expansion Coefficient (α): 
Linear expansion of a material per °C increase in temperature.

Volume Expansion Coefficient (ß):
Volume expansion of a material per °C increase in temperature.

Endothermic reaction:
Energy is absorbed into the system from the surroundings.

Exothermic reaction:
Energy is released from the system into the surroundings.

Specific Heat Capacity (Cp):
Amount of energy that 1 gram of material can absorb before increasing in temperature.          Cp for water: 4.18 J or 1.00 cal

Enthalpy of fusion (Lfus):
Energy needed to break enough intermolecular forces to change a solid into a liquid

Enthalpy of vaporization (Lvap):
Energy needed to break the intermolecular forces to change a liquid into a gas.

Thermal Equilibrium: 
Two objects at different temperatures will come to the same temperature when placed together.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:
Objects in thermal equilibrium are at the same temperature. Objects in contact will eventually come to thermal equilibrium.

1st Law of Thermodynamics (Law of Conservation of Energy):
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed in a chemical or physical process.

Energy lost/gained from the system is equal & opposite to that lost/gaines from the surroundings

Entropy (S):
Disorder or random-ness

2nd Law of Thermodynamics:
The total entropy of the universe can never decrease. 

Carnot Engine:
An ideal heat engine consisting of a cylinder and piston that operates between two temperatures or heat reservoirs.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

This tutorial is all about heat.  First, the expansion effects of heat are described.  Materials can expand linearly, or over some volume. Next, the some methods of describing heat added to materials are described.  For example, specific heat tells the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of a particular substance.  Heats of vaporization and fusion describe the heat needed for phase changes.  Next, the laws of thermodynamics are described.  The 0th law says that objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature and no heat is exchanged.  The 1st law says that energy isn’t created or destroyed, it changed from one form to another.  The 2nd law says that the disorder, or entropy, of the universe won’t decrease.  It will either increase or stay the same.

Tutorial Features:

Specific Tutorial Features:

  • Animated diagrams showing thermal processes
  • Graphic organizers to illustrate concept relationships.

Series Features:

  • Concept map showing inter-connections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts
  • Animated examples—worked out step by step
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:


  • Expansion, linear and volume
  • Thermometers and thermostats

Energy in thermal processes

  • Heat and internal energy equation
  • State functions
  • Specific heat and heat capacity
  • Endothermic and exothermic
  • Calorimetry
  • Phase changes

Laws of thermodynamics

  • Thermal equilibrium and the 0th law
  • Pressure volume and work
  • 1st law of thermodynamics
    • Adiabatic
    • Constant volume
    • Cyclical engines
    • Entropy
  • 2nd law of thermodynamics

Carnot Engine

See all 24 lessons in calculus physics, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Calculus Physics Visually in 24 Hours