Law of reflection:
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
Reflection from a rough surface where variations in the direction of the surface cause light to reflect in different directions.
Also called a diverging mirror, a surface that diverges light as if it originates from a point behind the mirror, a focal point.
Also, called a converging mirror, a surface that converges light to a single point, focal point.
An image where the rays of light actually meet at a location. It can be projected onto a screen.
An image that cannot be projected onto a screen. The rays of light don’t actually converge there, they just seem to originate from that location.
The bending of light due to its change in velocity in various media.
Index of refraction:
The ratio between the speed of light in a vacuum and a particular medium.
The formula that describes the amount of refraction of light based on the two different media and the angle of the light ray: n1sinθ1=n2sinθ2
Total internal reflection:
The complete reflection of light when it strikes the boundary between two media at greater than a critical angle.
A converging lens that gathers incoming light to a single focal point.
A diverging lens that diverges light as if it originates from a point behing the lens, the focal point.
A lens defect where light is imperfectly focused near the focal point.
A lens defect where various color focus at different locations.